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Acute Myocardial Infarction: Initial Symptoms, Tests, Surgery, Treatment, and Aftereffects

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Summarized by durumis AI

  • Acute myocardial infarction is a damage to the heart muscle caused by blockage of the coronary arteries, characterized by chest pain, shortness of breath, and other symptoms, requiring immediate emergency treatment.
  • Diagnosing acute myocardial infarction involves tests such as electrocardiogram, blood tests, and echocardiogram. Treatment options include medication and surgery.
  • After an MI, complications such as impaired heart function may occur, emphasizing the importance of maintaining a healthy lifestyle.

I will summarize the initial symptoms, examination code, surgery, and aftereffects of acute myocardial infarction. Acute myocardial infarction can strike suddenly at any time, without warning. Please refer to the following information about acute myocardial infarction and wish you a speedy recovery.

What is Acute Myocardial Infarction?

 Acute myocardial infarction refers to a situation where the heart's blood vessel is blocked, causing a temporary or permanent interruption of oxygen and nutrient supply to the heart muscle. This is usually caused by artery stenosis, and the heart muscle is damaged due to the stenosed artery or thrombus inside the blood vessel.
Acute myocardial infarction is often called "heart attack" or "heart attack episode" and causes symptoms such as chest pain, shortness of breath, headache, and dizziness. If these symptoms occur, emergency measures should be taken immediately, and the accuracy and speed of treatment are very important. Acute myocardial infarction can lead to chronic heart disease, so early diagnosis and appropriate treatment are required.

Initial Symptoms

 The following symptoms may occur as initial symptoms of acute myocardial infarction.

Chest Pain

The most common symptom is severe pain that suddenly occurs in the center or left of the chest. The pain can feel like heaviness, pressure, or a stabbing sensation.

Shortness of Breath

Chest pain can make it difficult to breathe. This can be more severe in older adults or people with respiratory diseases such as asthma.

Anxiety, Fear

Chest pain from acute myocardial infarction can be accompanied by anxiety, fear, and panic.

Nausea, Vomiting

Severe chest pain from acute myocardial infarction can cause nausea and vomiting.


Stress from acute myocardial infarction can cause excessive sweating. If you have symptoms that suggest acute myocardial infarction, you should immediately visit the emergency room for treatment.


Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) examination is a test to check the heart health of patients who have experienced severe pain or discomfort in the heart.

Electrocardiogram (EKG)

This test measures the electrical activity of the heart to check for signs of myocardial infarction. If a patient suspected of having a myocardial infarction receives an EKG and abnormalities are found, further tests such as blood tests, echocardiograms, or cardiac imaging tests may be performed.

Blood Test

When myocardial infarction occurs, the heart muscle is destroyed, so substances such as degraded hemoglobin are detected at high levels in the blood. Therefore, acute myocardial infarction can be diagnosed by measuring the concentration of free oxygen in the blood.


Measures the structure and function of the heart using sound waves. This test can check for abnormalities in heart function due to myocardial infarction.

Cardiac Imaging Test

Measures how blood supply to the heart is flowing using radioactive materials. This test can identify the location and extent of myocardial infarction.
These tests play an important role in the diagnosis and treatment of acute myocardial infarction. However, it is important to maintain a healthy lifestyle, including diet improvement, exercise, and smoking cessation, to maintain heart health.

Surgery and Treatment

Acute myocardial infarction is a life-threatening condition, so immediate medical attention and treatment are required. Generally, treatment for acute myocardial infarction consists of drug therapy and surgical treatment.
Drug therapy often uses thrombolytics, antiplatelet agents, and vasodilators to maintain blood flow, minimize damage to heart tissue, and improve heart function.
Surgical treatment includes coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), in which a stent is inserted into the stenosed artery. CABG is heart surgery that involves opening the sternum to reroute a blood vessel around the stenosed artery through the blood. PCI is a procedure that inserts a stent into the stenosed artery to maintain blood flow.
After surgery, pain and side effects may occur at the surgical site. Therefore, proper management is necessary after treatment. In addition, acute myocardial infarction patients should participate in cardiac rehabilitation programs to maintain heart health by maintaining a healthy diet, lifestyle, and exercise.


Post-acute myocardial infarction sequelae are complications that occur after myocardial infarction and are symptoms that occur after the heart muscle is damaged. These symptoms usually occur when heart muscle tissue is destroyed or damaged due to myocardial infarction, and they are manifested mainly as chest pain, shortness of breath, and palpitations.
The symptoms of post-acute myocardial infarction sequelae can vary and depend on the severity of the heart muscle damage. The symptoms tend to be more severe when the heart muscle damage is severe.
These symptoms usually appear within 1-2 weeks after the onset of myocardial infarction and most improve within 3 months. However, symptoms may persist in some patients.
Treatment for post-acute myocardial infarction sequelae is generally similar to the initial treatment for myocardial infarction. In particular, drug treatment such as thrombolytics, vasodilators, and antiplatelet agents may be administered, and various other treatment methods such as cardiac rehabilitation, and surgical treatment may be applied in addition to this.
To prevent post-acute myocardial infarction sequelae, it is important to manage risk factors for myocardial infarction and maintain a healthy lifestyle. To do this, it is necessary to quit smoking, maintain a proper diet and exercise, and prevent and treat underlying diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia.

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